MD. ABU ZAFOR
Department of Civil Engineering, LU
Semi-arid and arid regions normally consider groundwater as a useful renewable natural resource for the sustenance of human life and also the ecosystem due to the fact that surface water resources had become increasingly unreliable both in quantity and quality (Wang et al., 2001). Its irresponsibility may additionally stem from extreme and unfavorable climate resulting in excessive layer water loses through process of evapotranspiration. According to Appelo and Postma (2005), in things where it’s accessible in property quantities, it simply becomes vulnerable to contamination from sure common phylogeny activities. These activities could embody industrial, mining, waste disposal and agricultural activities that generate leachates into surface water reservoir over time, thereby rendering them unsuitable and really costly to treat to satisfy the ever increasing demands of apace growing population in developing countries (Awotwi et al., 2017).
Groundwater, on the opposite hand, is way reliable each in amount and quality (Asare-Donkor et al., 2016). It’s usually a lot of present in its natural incidence, farther more mineralized and higher protected from layer contamination sources. Groundwater has become the most well-liked supply of property facility to satisfy domestic, agricultural and industrial wants of humans in rural, peri-urban and urban settings in most developing countries. Despite the widely positives associated with groundwater use, its quality isn’t inviolable (Anim Gyampo et al., 2018b), however may be altered over time through natural processes like geochemical interactions like the interactions between water and geological media, activity reactions, extreme evaporation and transpiration mechanisms, and biogeochemical activities (Appelo and Postma, 2005). Un-naturally, certain anthropogenic activities thanks to population boom and speedy urbanization may alter groundwater quality over time (Shah et al., 2019). Such activities and processes could embody however not restricted to leachates from agricultural fields that utilize agro-chemicals, and leachates from waste disposal sites (Geissen et al., 2015). During prolonged dry seasons (October-May), however, groundwater is the only supply of potable water (van der Berg, 2008). There exists large uncultivated fertile lands (Ofosu et al., 2014), however the shortage of reliable surface water resources had resulted in poor crop production over the past 3 decades (Barry et al., 2010), that has rendered the inhabitants to be amongst the second-poorest economically likewise as second-least in terms of food security in this country. While affordable knowledge on groundwater amount (i.e. recharge, storability and sustainability) in the study space exist (Martin and van Delaware Giesen, 2005; Barry et al., 2010; Obuobie, 2014), there’s little or no comprehensive knowledge on groundwater quality to gauge its suitableness for domestic and irrigation as well because the risk related to groundwater consumption
The main objectives of the study can be summarized as:
- Assessment of groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purpose.
- Potential health risk for groundwater utilization